科學家宣布計劃開發抗病毒細胞-中英雙語

更新時間:2022-04-01 17:53:48 所屬欄目:基因組 作者:吳博文

摘要:科學小組GenomeProject-write(GP-write)周二宣布,他們計劃啟動一個「大規模的社區范圍項目」,開發抵抗病毒的細胞以及可能抵抗輻射的細胞,凍結,老化和癌癥。這是第一步,它會隨意生產「超安全細胞」?!赋踩募毎赡軐θ梭w健康產生重大影響,說:」喬治教堂,哈佛

科學小組Genome Project-write(GP-write)周二宣布,他們計劃啟動一個「大規模的社區范圍項目」,開發抵抗病毒的細胞以及可能抵抗輻射的細胞,凍結,老化和癌癥。這是第一步,它會隨意生產「超安全細胞」。

「超安全的細胞可能對人體健康產生重大影響,說:」 喬治教堂,哈佛醫學院的遺傳學家和的GP-寫領導小組的四名成員之一,在一份聲明。GP-write將在周二在波士頓舉行的工作會議上開始。

「有充分的理由相信,我們可以生產出完全抵抗所有已知病毒的細胞,」紐約大學Langone醫學中心系統遺傳研究所所長,全球文獻寫作領導人之一的Jef Boeke 告訴STAT?!敢矐摽梢栽O計其他特性,包括抵抗朊病毒和癌癥?!?/p>

更多: 基因編輯如何拯救珊瑚礁

重新編碼人類基因組以使其具有抗病毒性是該項目更宏大的目標的第一階段 -

在實驗室中制作包括人類基因組在內的任何基因組。這一努力得到了新的合作伙伴生物制藥公司Cellectis的推動,這將為Church的實驗室提供依靠基因組編輯工具TALEN的病毒定位技術,該技術可以對DNA進行高度精確的變化。該組織計劃通過DNA重新編碼創建抗病毒基因。從本質上講,這是混淆病毒的一種方式,因此他們不能再讀取人類基因組并利用人類基因來幫助病毒繁殖。人類DNA是以三個字母(由DNA的A,C,G和T組成)稱為密碼子的組讀出的,每個密碼子代表一個胺基酸。胺基酸串組成蛋白質。在這個系統中有冗余,所以不同的三字母密碼子可以編碼相同的胺基酸。重新編碼人類基因組以消除這種冗余,以便只有一個密碼子編碼特定的胺基酸,阻止病毒復制。已經,Church通過測試細菌大腸桿菌的遺傳變化顯示這種方法是可行的;

在對細菌基因組進行321次改變后,微生物對某些病毒具有抗性。然而,在人類細胞中產生這種抵抗力將是一項更加艱巨的任務?!钢匦戮幋a人類基因組中的每種蛋白質......將需要400,000次改變,」Church在聲明中說。

幾個機構將參加該項目,這可能會對健康產生重大影響。研究人員在聲明中指出,病毒在制造過程中往往會污染藥物,導致制藥公司遭受重大經濟損失?!赋踩募毎梢允顾幬锔踩?,更便宜,更可靠,」Church說。

GP編寫的領導說,他們希望在10年內完成他們的項目。

Scientists Announce Plan to Create Virus-Proof Cells

The scientific group Genome Project-write (GP-write) announced on Tuesday that they plan to launch a 「grand-scale community-wide project」 to develop cells that are resistant to viruses, as well as

cells that are potentially resistant to radiation, freezing, aging and cancer. It’s the first step, it says, toward producing 「ultra-safe cells」 at will.

「Ultra-safe cells could have a major impact on human health,」 said George Church, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School and one of four members of the GP-write Leadership Group, in a statement.

GP-write is kicking off a working meeting Tuesday in Boston.

「There is very strong reason to believe that we can produce cells that would be completely resistant to all known viruses,」 Jef Boeke, director of the Institute for Systems Genetics at NYU Langone

Medical Center and one of the GP-write leaders, told STAT. 「It should also be possible to engineer other traits, including resistance to prions and cancer.」

MORE: How Gene Editing Could Save Coral Reefs

Recoding the human genome to make it virus-resistant is the first stage of the more ambitious goal of the project — to make any genome, including the human genome, in a lab. The effort gained a

boost with a new partner, biopharmaceutical company Cellectis, which will be providing Church’s lab with its virus-targeting technology that relies on the genome editing tool TALEN, which can make

highly precise changes to DNA. The group plans to create virus-resistant genes through DNA recoding. Essentially, it’s a way to confuse viruses so they can no longer read the human genome and exploit

human genes to help the virus reproduce. Human DNA is 『read』 in groups of three letters (made up of DNA’s A, C, G and T) known as codons, and each codon represents an amino acid. Strings of amino

acids make up proteins. There is redundancy in this system, so different three-letter codons can code for the same amino acid. Recoding the human genome to eliminate this redundancy, so that only one

codon codes for a particular amino acid, stumps the virus and prevents it from reproducing. Already, Church showed this approach is feasible by testing genetic changes on the bacteria E. coli; after

making 321 changes to the bacteria’s genome, the microbes were resistant to certain viruses. Creating such resistance in human cells, however, will be a much harder feat. 「Recoding every protein in

the human genome…would require 400,000 changes,」 Church said in the statement.

Several institutions are slated to participate in the project, which could have major implications for health. In the statement, the researchers cite the fact that viruses can often contaminate

medicines while they’re being manufactured, resulting in major financial losses for drug companies. 「Ultra-safe cells could thus make pharmaceuticals safer, cheaper and more reliable,」 says

Church.

The GP-write leaders say they hope to complete their project within 10 years.

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