Nature:中國學者利用基因組測序揭示蘭科起源

更新時間:2022-04-01 13:36:54 所屬欄目:基因組 作者:吳博文

摘要:2017年9月14日,國際學術權威刊物自然出版集團《Nature》雜志在線發表了深圳市蘭科植物保護研究中心劉仲健研究組等的一篇研究論文,論文報導了深圳擬蘭的基因序列。深圳擬蘭是生長在中國東南部的一種自花傳粉蘭花,研究發現為種類繁多且覆蓋廣泛的蘭科植物的起源及演化帶來新見解。蘭科植

2017年9月14日,國際學術權威刊物自然出版集團《Nature》雜志在線發表了深圳市蘭科植物保護研究中心劉仲健研究組等的一篇研究論文,論文報導了深圳擬蘭的基因序列。

深圳擬蘭是生長在中國東南部的一種自花傳粉蘭花,研究發現為種類繁多且覆蓋廣泛的蘭科植物的起源及演化帶來新見解。蘭科植物約占開花植物種類的10%,且形態及習性各異。它們幾乎成功占領了世界上每一處棲息地。擬蘭屬和另一蘭花屬分化時間很早,并形成相對于其他蘭科植物的姐妹譜系。研究組發表了其中一個成員——深圳擬蘭的全基因組序列。他們還呈現了其他三種亞科蘭花的轉錄組數據(控制有機體基因表達的一組RNA分子)及另一個亞科中兩個種的高質量基因組數據。

研究人員發現深圳擬蘭提供了全基因組重復的清晰證據,這種全基因組重復在所有蘭花中都有體現,且出現在它們分化前不久。通過與其他蘭科植物和開花植物比較,作者重筑了一種祖先蘭花的「基因工具包」,它讓人們對導致蘭科歷史上重大演化的基因機制有更多了解。這些演化包括唇瓣(花朵上吸引昆蟲的「嘴唇」)和繁殖結構合蕊柱的產生,以及附生狀態(生長在其他植物上的能力)的形成。

原文連結:

原文摘要:

Constituting approximately 10% of flowering plant species, orchids (Orchidaceae) display unique flower morphologies, possess an extraordinary diversity in lifestyle, and have successfully

colonized almost every habitat on Earth1, 2, 3. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Apostasia shenzhenica4, a representative of one of two genera that form a sister lineage to the rest of the

Orchidaceae, providing a reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor of all extant orchids and improving our understanding of their origins and

evolution. In addition, we present transcriptome data for representatives of Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae and Orchidoideae, and novel third-generation genome data for two species of Epidendroideae,

covering all five orchid subfamilies. A. shenzhenica shows clear evidence of a whole-genome duplication, which is shared by all orchids and occurred shortly before their divergence. Comparisons

between A. shenzhenica and other orchids and angiosperms also permitted the reconstruction of an ancestral orchid gene toolkit. We identify new gene families, gene family expansions and contractions,

and changes within MADS-box gene classes, which control a diverse suite of developmental processes, during orchid evolution. This study sheds new light on the genetic mechanisms underpinning key

orchid innovations, including the development of the labellum and gynostemium, pollinia, and seeds without endosperm, as well as the evolution of epiphytism; reveals relationships between the

Orchidaceae subfamilies; and helps clarify the evolutionary history of orchids within the angiosperms.

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